The Pokémon video game series is a collection of role-playing video games based on the Japanese Pokémon franchise. It debuted on February 27, 1996 in Japan with the release of the Pocket Monsters Green and Red games. The game duo met with such success that it was successively declined in two other versions (blue version and yellow version), then translated throughout the world. In total, the game duo sold over 31 million copies, making it the second best-selling video game in 1999. Thanks to this record number of sales, Pokémania was launched.
While developer Game Freak saw themselves designing Pokémon up to the second generation including Gold, Silver, and Crystal Pokémon in the early 2000s, the team continued on. In the main Nintendo handheld games, Pokémon Ruby, Sapphire and Emerald released in 2002, followed by Pokémon Diamond and Pearl in 2006, Pokémon Black and White in 2010, Pokémon Black 2 and White 2 in 2012, Pokémon X and Y in 2013, Pokémon Sun and Moon in 2016, Pokémon Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon in 2017 and Pokémon Sword and Shield in 2019. Four reissues were also released in 2004, 2009, 2014 and 2018 and are called Fire Red and Leaf Green Pokémon respectively. , Pokémon Gold HeartGold and Silver SoulSilver, Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire and Pokémon Let’s Go, Pikachu and Let’s Go, Eevee. A fifth re-release named Pokémon Sparkling Diamond and Sparkling Pearl will be released in 2021 while a major game named Pokémon Legends: Arceus will be released in 2022.
It is one of the best-selling series of all time in terms of sales, selling over 340 million copies in March 2019.
Satoshi Tajiri was an insect collector as a child, like many children in Japan. He took the nickname “Dr Bug”, translatable as “insect doctor”. Legend has it that when seeing an insect on a link cable connecting two Game Boy, Satoshi had the idea of the monsters to capture1. Another legend says that he got the idea for Pikachu after seeing a mouse shocked on a high voltage cable.
In modeling Pokémon, Satoshi Tajiri had two motivations. The first was to create a challenging yet playable game that would spark children’s imaginations. The second was to give children a way to relieve stress and grow up in a post-industrial society2,3.
He created with his friend Ken Sugimori the Capsule Monsters in 19904. The first species of Pokémon created are Rhinoferos (Rhydon), Melofée (Clefairy) and Lokhlass (Lapras) 5,6. Pokémon has been divided into two games based on an idea by Shigeru Miyamoto so that the games communicate better.
Originally, the Pokémon games were to be published only in Japan in two rounds of two games8. In the idea of the designers, the Green and Red games, then the Gold and Silver games were the only games to be designed. Then, the license would end, at the dawn of the 2000.